ISIS Application Documentation
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Calibrates Hayabusa 1 AMICA images
This program calibrates images from the Hayabusa mission's AMICA instrument. The input image is corrected for the following, in order, during calibration:
Step 1: Bias removal.The signal level of AMICA is determined by a combination of an electronic offset which defines the "zero" level of the analog-to-digital converter (the bias) as well as any additional signal due to thermal electrons (the dark current). In general, the bias offset depends upon the electronics and CCD temperature. The bias for AMICA was empirically modeled as a function of time:
Step 2: Linearity correction:The DN level stored in raw images is approximately proportional to the number of photons detected in each CCD pixel over the exposure time. Linearity is a measure of the degree to which the CCD response is proportional to the incident flux. Linearity was tested during the pre-flight and mission phase of the mission. During the pre-flight phase, DN values taken at different exposure times showed a linear intensity with an incidence flux between 1000 DN and 3500 DN. By curve-fitting the pre-flight data, the following equation was obtained:
Step 3: Hot pixel removal:During the mission the CCD was exposed to intense radiation from cosmic rays. This resulted in some pixels with an aberrant dark current value that was higher than their neighbors (the hot pixels). The number of hot pixels increased during the mission. This made accurate measurement of faint objects such as stars difficult. The following hot pixels were identified and removed from the output images during calibration by setting their values to ISIS::Null:
Step 4: Read-out smear:The AMICA instrument is shuttered electronically. Images are exposed for a certain exposure time in addition to the vertical charge-transfer period of 12.288 milliseconds. It is during the charge-transfer period that a read-out smear in the vertical direction is produced. The read-out smear is predominant in images with exposure times on the order of 100 microseconds. Originally the mission plan was to correct for this smear on-board the spacecraft. However, an anomaly in one of the reaction wheels on October 2, 2005 made this impossible. As a result of this, some of the images returned by the AMICA instrument are smear-corrected, while others are not. This necessitated creating a smear model to remove smears from images taken during the descending and ascending period. The read-out smear brightness Ismear for unbinned images is modeled from the observed images as follows:
For binned images a different formula is applied:
A correction factor is then applied after the smear component is subtracted from the input image (Iraw):
Step 5: Flat-field correction:Performs a correction for pixel-to-pixel variation in CCD response and vignetting (reduction of image brightness near the periphery compared with the center). Flat-field images for all bands were acquired using an integrating sphere at NEC Space Technologies, Ltd. at room temperature (around 30 degrees Celsius). A flat-field image is one which has constant uniform brightness everywhere. AMICA was pointed into the integrating sphere to acquire images of a field that is known be be spatially uniform to an accuracy of approximately 2%. The correction is accomplished by dividing each pixel of the output image by the corresponding pixel in the flat-field image.
Step 6 (Optional): Convert output units to Radiance or I over F:This step is optional, and the formula used depends on the value of the UNITS user parameter. If UNITS=RADIANCE, the following formula will be used to convert the raw DN values to radiance (W/m2/sr/µm):
If run on a non-spiceinited cube, this program requires access to local mission-specific SPICE kernels, in order to find the distance between the sun and the target body. When run on a spiceinited cube, this can be determined using the camera model. When run on a non-spiceinited cube, amicacal must have access to Hayabusa's spacecraft clock kernel (SCLK) and several position kernels (SPKs) to run. Using a spiceinited cube as input has the advantage of not requiring that local mission-specific kernels be available. (See spiceinit web=true.)
Related Objects and Documents
This is the ISIS cube to be calibrated.
This is the output file. The output cube will be a calibrated version of the input cube.
This is the PVL file containing the input configuration parameters for the amicacal program. Users can modify the parameters as needed.
Four position angle glass polarizers (of dimension 200 x 200 pixels each) are attached to the upper left of the CCD chip. This option sets those pixels to Null in the calibrated image by default.